The American education system as a whole has always relied on a wide range of practical tasks and exercises.
In the process, students make their way through the content through an ever-deeper analysis of the nuances and complexities of each of these aspects and how they interact. Moreover, each person brings their accumulated knowledge and experience to “reading” in addition to the content that the creators of the media text tried to encrypt.
The American education system as a whole has always relied on a wide range of practical tasks and exercises. This technique is called “project learning” or “project training courses”. As a rule, students are grouped together to carry out such projects.
Undoubtedly, the effectiveness of media education depends entirely on the level of appropriate teacher training. Therefore, the most important aspect of media education is the media education of teachers and future teachers. In early 1999, the American Forum on Education and Technology published a report on the status of technology and education in the United States. The report says that schools spend ten times more on computers and the Internet than on teaching teachers to use these high-tech tools. At the turn of the 21st century, American schools spent an average of about $ 88 per year per student on computer-based learning, and only $ 6 on teacher training was used in the teaching process. 87,000 American schools have about six million computers (that is, nearly 70 computers per school) and about 80% of schools have Internet access. However, only 20% of American teachers are willing to use this technique in their lessons, although formally computer courses have been organized for 78% of teachers.
Of course, in higher education media are used more widely and intensively. For example, teachers post course plans, programs, bibliographies, and assignments online. Students look for information related to this course, submit written works by e-mail. Using this mail, students can communicate with the teaching staff (so-called “virtual hours”). The entire library card index is also entered into a computer database, etc. However, in many cases, the media are used as ancillary resources to the old reproductive education system. And students still do not receive a full-fledged media education, which involves the study of media language, audience problems, perception, critical analysis, and others.
Analysis of research and practical experience of American media educators shows that such methods of media education of students can be identified. According to the sources of knowledge: verbal (lecture, story, conversation, explanation, discussion), visual (illustration and demonstration of media texts) and practical (performing various tasks of a practical nature on the material of the media). By levels of cognitive activity: explanatory-illustrative (communication by the teacher of certain information about the media, perception and assimilation of this information by the audience), reproductive (development and application by the teacher of various exercises and tasks on media material for students to master their solutions), problematic (problem analysis of certain situations or media text, for example, in order to develop “critical thinking”, partially exploratory or heuristic, research (organization of exploratory and creative learning activities) methods of obtaining new knowledge and skills.
American media educator D. Leverans systematized the requirements for knowledge and skills required of students in schools in different US states in the process of media education.
Here are the main ones:
students should have access to print, visual and electronic media for various purposes; students must have the terminology of media education; students should understand that all media texts contain “messages”; students must be able to “decode” and analyze (using so-called “critical analysis”) media texts in a historical, social and cultural context, understanding the relationship between the audience, the media text and the surrounding reality; based on the acquired knowledge, students should be able to create their own media texts of different nature, discuss their media projects, as well as media texts created by other people.
The goals of the audience’s contact with the media are differentiated by the age of students in this way.
A. Aspect of media access (including terminology)
Early school age – use of media for:
information and entertainment; the simplest research works; teaching; assessments of the language of media texts and some of their forms and genres (news, animation, advertising, drama, etc.); knowledge of the terminology of the most important parts of media equipment (camera, projector, computer, slide, etc.), the ability to perform basic operations on this equipment; ability to distinguish parts of media text (for example, frames); knowledge of basic media professions (journalist, director, cameraman, etc.).
Middle school age (4-8th grades of American school):
use of a wide range of media for information, entertainment and communication; access to media resources to identify, research and represent issues andproblems; access to databases (library, media library) to search for primary and secondary resources for the implementation of certain projects; use of media to evaluate the language of media texts and some of their forms, genres and categories; ability to “read”, identify and discuss audiovisual texts, including issues related to media language (perspective, plan, color, sound, etc.); the ability to describe the main functions of certain creators of media texts and people associated with their distribution.
Senior School Age (grades 9-12):
ability to select media texts of a wide range of forms and substantiate the reasons for their choice; access to media resources to identify, research and represent issues and problems; access to databases (library, media library) to search for primary and secondary resources for the implementation of certain projects, the ability to select the data that are best suited for this project; use of media to assess the language of media texts and a wide range of their forms, genres and categories; ability to “read”, identify and discuss audiovisual texts, including issues related to the language of the media, including such complex as “editing”, the work of the editor, etc.; ability to describe the main functions of certain creators of media texts and people associated with their distribution (including marketing, press layout, political campaigns in the media, etc.).
B. Aspect of media text analysis (“Media contains a message to be analyzed”)
Early school age:
study of the typology of plots found in media texts, and comparison of new types of plots with those that were known to students before; use of previously acquired knowledge and skills; explanation of their preferences for media products; identification and description of various stereotypes in the media text (for example, hero, villain, etc.). understanding the differences between the types of media (press, TV, cinema, etc.); understanding of some ways of organizing material in media text; analysis of how verbal and visual symbols form a meaning (for example, the role of signs in advertising); knowledge of different types of advertising in various forms and types of media texts; consideration of types of plots used in advertising, news, documentaries and game media texts; understanding and explaining the connections, the development of the action and the plot in the media text help me write my lab report for free.
Middle school age (4-8th grades):
definition of ways of construction of a plot (for example, by means of the off-screen text); analysis of several plot lines in the story; the ability to ask questions about the main idea of the media text, the expression of opinion about its content (accuracy, relevance, bias, etc.) and form; a description of how different elements of the media text help to create the atmosphere and content of the work; comparison of own experience with similar experience in the field of media within their age group; understanding some stereotypes of media descriptions by different students of their age group, including how these descriptions are influenced by different social, racial and cultural characteristics; understanding the specifics of the genre and type of media text (advertising, news, TV shows, etc.); understanding a number of ways of organizing and presenting vital material in the media text; recognition of symbolic codes used by the media (frame, angle, etc.); an explanation of how information relates to media codes and conventions; analysis of how the absence or presence of advertising affects the media text; consideration of how the same story can be adapted for different types of audiences; recognition of plot models and how they are used in documentary and game media texts.
Senior school age (grades 9-2):
understanding the plot as a series of constructed conventions, such as the motives of the actions of the characters, episodes, the hierarchy of events and characters, etc.; the analysis of which openly expressed ideas, certain passions (prejudices) of the authors of the media text is meant; understanding that the main content of the media text is transmitted through a combination of elements (such as sound, frame, perspective, etc.); comparison of gender, social and professional stereotypes in media texts of different “cultural fields”; understanding how the genre clarifies the audience’s expectations regarding the content of the media text; understanding a number of ways of organizing and presenting life material in the media text and critical analysis of other students’ opinions; analysis of how the symbolic codes used by the media (frame, angle, etc.) can interact with each other to create a specific content of the text; analysis of the effect of advertising, consideration of the importance of advertising for commercial media; comparison of the ways in which different types of media interpret similar plots or stories; comparison and analysis of media texts of the same and different types (for example, reports in different newspapers, on television, on the Internet).
B. Aspect of media text evaluation (critical evaluation of media texts in historical, social and cultural contexts, including understanding of the relationship between audience, media text and the surrounding reality)
Early school age:
understanding the difference between a real event and its reflection in the media text; asking questions about the content of the media text on the basis of their knowledge and life experience; a description of some details of the media text and how they make this text more interesting; research into the ways in which the media can influence the individual; expressing one’s own preferences during the discussion about media products; attentive and critical “reading” of media texts intended for entertainment, understanding of their main ideas, content; research of the influence of the media on the environment of students (family, home, school); determining for which audience this or that media text is intended.
Middle school age (4-8th grades):