Food, sawmill, garment and other industries developed rapidly in Ukraine.

Food, sawmill, garment and other industries developed rapidly in Ukraine.

poods (or more than 3 times). The share of southern Ukraine in the production of iron in the Romanov monarchy during this period increased from 5 to 19%, rolled – from 4.5 to 13%. In 1913 p. There were 21 metallurgical plants in Ukraine.

In the late 90’s of the XIX century. Ukraine smelted 52, in 1913 p. – 69% of the total imperial production of cast iron, 67% of steel, 58% of rolled products.

The transition of metallurgy to mineral fuels has led to high rates of development of a new branch of heavy industry – coke production.

The development of the metallurgical industry of Ukraine was inextricably linked with the development of the Kryvyi Rih iron ore basin. For the last decade of the XIX century. significantly increased the number of iron oresin Kryvyi Rih.

The technical equipment of Ukrainian mines has improved. The number of steam engines has increased, their total capacity has increased. The iron ore industry became an independent branch of large-scale industrial production. The number of large mines equipped with steam engines has increased.

At the end of the XIX century. large-scale machine production in the Ukrainian iron ore industry accounted for more than 75% of total output. More than 62% of workers were employed here. Ukraine’s iron ore industry, like the metallurgical industry, developed faster than in other industrial areas of the Russian Empire. Ukraine’s share in total imperial iron ore production increased from 4.4% in 1880 p. to 52.9% in 1899 p.

Large-scale coal production was formed in Donbass. The share of Donbass in the imperial coal mining (excluding the Kingdom of Poland) increased in 1890 p. up to 84.6% and in 1898 p. – up to 92%. Coal production increased from 927 million poods in 1909 p. to 1543.8 in 1913 p. (or 66.5%). At this time in the coal industry of Ukraine there were 1,200 mines, which employed 1,684 thousand people.

Compared to the metallurgy, coal and iron ore industries, machine building in Ukraine, with the exception of agriculture, developed slowly. During the 1980s, two districts of Ukrainian engineering of general imperial importance were formed: Kherson-Ekaterinoslav (8.5% of all-Russian production) and Kyiv-Kharkiv (6.5%). At the end of the XIX century. in the Ekaterinoslav province 33 enterprises produced agricultural machinery and implements, in the Tavriya province – 19, in the Kherson province – 16.

Ukraine produced more than half of all agricultural machinery manufactured in European Russia. The Grievza plant in Berdyansk was a large enterprise producing agricultural machinery. Factories in Odessa, Kharkiv, Elizavetgrad, Bila Tserkva, and Kyiv played an important role in the production of agricultural machinery, as well as apparatus and pumps for the sugar, distillery, sawmill, and other industries.

In 1876-1890 p. the cost of cars produced at the enterprises of the four southern provinces of the Russian Empire (Don, Ekaterinoslav, Kherson, Tavria) increased more than 8 times, and over the next four years – another 2.5 times. These were the highest rates of development of mechanical engineering in the entire Romanov monarchy. However, the machines manufactured by Ukrainian enterprises were inferior to foreign ones in terms of cost and quality. Few machines were produced for the industry itself, including for mechanical engineering.

In 1895 p. construction of the Kharkiv Locomotive Company began, and in 1896 p. – Luhansk Machine-Building Plants. Already in 1900 p. these enterprises produced 233 locomotives, which accounted for 23.3% of total imperial production. In the Ekaterinoslav province, a car-building plant in the Lower Dnieper was built next to the agricultural engineering plants. Kharkiv became a major center of mechanical engineering.

The first machine-building plants that produced special machines for the mining industry were Kramatorsk, Horlivka and Katerynoslav.

The activity of the Nikolaev plant "Naval" quite brightly testifies to development of the Ukrainian shipbuilding. Founded in 1895 p. Belgian anonymous joint-stock company (with an initial capital of about 5 million rubles., Which doubled in 2 years), the plant "Naval" until 1900 p. had 2250 workers. The total output reached 4200 thousand rubles. However, with the full load of the enterprise, its annual productivity could be more than 8 million rubles. provided that 5 thousand workers were employed here.

Total in Ukraine in 1913 p. there were 450 machine-building and metal-working enterprises, which employed 57 thousand workers. Gross output of mechanical engineering accounted for 20.2% of total output of mechanical engineering and metalworking industry in Russia. However, Ukrainian engineering did not meet the growing needs of the country’s industrial development. A large number of machines and machines were still imported from abroad, including almost half of complex agricultural machines.

Food, sawmill, garment and other industries developed rapidly in Ukraine. Enterprises of the food industry of the Right Bank and partly of the Left Bank at the end of the XIX century. produced 72% of Ukrainian sugar. In the early 1990s, there were more than 150 sugar factories in the Right Bank and Kharkiv region, producing about 21 million poods of sugar (85% of total imperial production).

The center of the flour industry was the south of Ukraine. On the Right Bank and the Left Bank, enterprises in this industry operated in Kyiv, Kremenchuk, and Kharkiv. Sugar, flour milling, and alcohol production became branches of large-scale industry of all-Russian importance. From the industries that processed livestock products, leather developed successfully.

An important place in the economy of Ukraine was occupied by the distillery industry, which increased the output of its products every year.

In the tobacco industry of Ukraine, along with small tobacco companies, which outnumbered many large factories. Some of them employed several hundred workers.

Industry of the twentieth century.

An important factor in the industrialization of Ukraine in the early XX century. was the most developed railway transport at that time. In 1881-1890 p. in Ukraine, 1093 km of railways were put into operation, and in 1890-1895 p. – another 1141 km. Some of the railways were built at the expense of the state treasury, the rest – by large joint-stock companies with the support of state credit. In the early 1990s, there were 9 railways (public and private) in Ukraine. Their total length was 7.6 thousand miles, or 1/5 of the entire railway network of the Russian Empire.

In the first decade of XX century. the pace of railway construction has almost halved since the 1990s and increased only on the eve of the First World War due to the industrial boom. In Russia as a whole, the length of railways increased in 1913. up to 70,200, including in Ukraine – up to 10,900 km.

The railways created the necessary conditions for the rapid growth of metallurgy in southern Ukraine, provided a wide sale of coal in the Donbass. In 1870-1874 p. railways of Ukraine annually transported about 121 million poods of cargo, and in 1895-1899 p. – over 1414.

In 1901-1911 p. freight turnover on the railways of Ukraine increased by 81.6%, and the growth rates of grain (103.6%) and coal (96%) were ahead. Grain and coal accounted for almost half of the cargo turnover, which reflected the nature of Ukraine’s economic development on an imperial scale. In 1913 p. Ukrainian railways transported 104 million tons of cargo and 49 million passengers.

Foreign capital had a certain influence on the development of industry and transport in Ukraine, the inflow of which has increased since the 1980s. A particularly large flow of Belgian, French, British, and American capital flowed into the mining industry. From 1888 to 1894 p. 22 foreign companies were established here.

Monopolistic associations in Ukraine, especially large ones, were closely linked to foreign capital. More than 25% of all foreign capital invested in the industry of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century, accounted for Ukraine short narrative ideas. Thus, in the coal industry, foreigners owned 63% of fixed capital, in metallurgy – 90%. Foreign capital was attracted to Ukraine by high profits, which almost entirely went abroad.

A huge role in the development of Ukrainian industry belonged to corporatization. The first joint-stock companies in Ukraine appeared in the 70s. This process became widespread in the 90’s, during the crisis of 1900-1903 p., Which was replaced by the industrial boom of 1910-1913 p. It was due to the productive years, the strengthening in connection with the Stolypin reform of the capitalization of the village, the growing demand for agricultural machinery. The inflow of free capital into industry contributed to an increase in the fixed capital of private joint-stock commercial banks and commercial and industrial enterprises, and to the growth of joint-stock companies. The scale of the industrial boom was significantly influenced by a significant increase in state treasury orders related to the preparation of tsarism for the First World War.

The first joint-stock companies appeared in the 70’s and 80’s. Many of them were created in the 90s. Among them are the Golubiv Berestovo-Bohodukhiv Mining Society (1890), the Russian-Donetsk Society of Coal and Factory Industry (1895), the joint-stock company of the Bryansk Coal Mines and Mines (1896), the Katerynivka Mining and Metallurgical Society 18 1896).

In 1896 p. the Donetsk-Petrovenkivske Mining Society was also formed to develop coal and other deposits in the Ekaterinoslav Province. In 1898-1899 p. The Southern and Voskresensk Mining Societies, the Crimean-Donetsk Society of the Coal and Mining Industry, the Joint-Stock Company of the Ekaterinoslav Pipe and Iron Rolling Plant, the South Russian Metallurgical Society, and the Society of Kerch Metallurgical Plants and Mines emerged.

Joint-stock companies also appeared in other industries in southern Ukraine: the Oak Beam Mines Society in Kryvyi Rih for iron ore mining (1892), the Russian Locomotive and Mechanical Society (1895), the Russian Society of Hartmann Machine-Building Plants (1896 ), and the Southern Russian Machinery Society. (1896) and so on.

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